septuagesimal

    Все жиды города Киева и его окрестностей должны явиться в понедельник 29 сентября 1941 года к 8 часам утра на угол Мельниковой и Доктеривской улиц (возле кладбища).
    Взять с собой документы, деньги, ценные вещи, а также теплую одежду, белье и пр.
    Кто из жидов не выполнит этого распоряжения и будет найден в другом месте, будет расстрелян.
    Кто из граждан проникнет в оставленные жидами квартиры и присвоит себе вещи, будет расстрелян.
    Наказується всім жидам міста Києва і околиць зібратися в понеділок дня 29 вересня 1941 року до год. 8 ранку на вул. Мельника — Доктерівській (коло кладовища).
    Всі повинні забрати з собою документи, гроші, білизну та інше.
    Хто не підпорядкується цьому розпорядженню, буде розстріляний.
    Хто займе жидівське мешкання або розграбує предмети з тих мешкань, буде розстріляний.


    Sämtliche Juden der Stadt Kiew und Umgebung haben sich am Montag, dem 29. September 1941 bis 8 Uhr; Ecke Melnik- und Dokteriwski-Strasse (an den Friedhoefen) einzufinden.
    Mitzunehmen sind Dokumente, Geld und Wertsachen sowie warme Bekleidung, Waesche usw.
    Wer dieser Aufforderung nicht nachkommt und anderweitig angetroffen wird, wird erschossen.
    Wer in verlassene Wohnungen von Juden eindringt oder sich Gegenstaende daraus aneignet, wird erschossen.

    All Jews of Kiev and its environs must appear on Monday, 29 September 1941 at 8 o’clock in the morning on the corner of Melnikova and Dokterivska Street (near the cemetery).
    All must take along documents, money, valuables, as well as warm clothes, underwear, etc.
    Any Jews who fail to comply with this order and are found elsewhere will be shot.
    Any citizens who enter the apartments vacated by Jews and appropriate their goods will be shot.

a nation like no other

Римські історики записали, що полководці (адже їм лише б загарбувати) радили першому імператорові Августові війною колонізувати нашу державу Велику Україну, брати зерно та інші товари безкоштовно. Будуть і податки. Він заперечував: не хоче більше втратити, ніж скористати, бо українська нація особлива, не знае рабовласництва, не була ще ніким поневолена. Підкорити її важко. Крім того, війна знищить землеробство, і зерна все одно не буде.
    Почалася 300-літня “легка колонізація” наших морських портів Римом. Були і війни, бо імператори після Августа посилали полководців чи й самі вели легіони колонізувати українську землю і націю, але нація завжди, хоч і з великими матеріальними і людськими втратами, відбивалася від могутнього Риму. Нація не підкорилася наймогутнішому колонізаторові античності. Українська нація не скорена!
    Цей урок з античної історії нам потрібно вивчити, запам’ятати і взяти до уваги.

Roman historians recorded that the generals (who think of nothing but conquests) advised the first emperor Augustus to wage war in order to colonize our country, the Great Ukraine, to confiscate her grain and other goods. There would be taxes, too. He demurred, not wanting to lose more than he would gain; for the Ukrainian nation is like no other: it does not suffer slavery, it never has been dominated by anyone else. It would be hard to conquer. Besides, warfare would destroy agriculture, and grain could not be had anyway.
    Thus began the 300-year long “light colonization” of our seaports by Rome. There were wars, because emperors that followed Augustus sent their generals or themselves went to command legions to colonize the Ukrainian land and nation; but our nation always, albeit at great material and human costs, repulsed the mighty Rome. Our nation defied the most powerful colonizers of antiquity. Ukrainian nation is unconquered!
    We must learn, memorize, and heed this lesson from ancient history.

— Mykola Halychanets, The Ukrainian nation: The Origin and Life of the Ukrainian Nation From the Ancient Times to the Eleventh Century, Mandrivets, 2005

role models ride again

Народе! Знай! Москва, Польша, Мадяри, Жидова—це Твої вороги. Нищ іх! Ляхів, жидів, комуністів знищуй без милосердя!
People! Know this! Moscow, Poland, Magyars, Yids—those are Your enemies. Destroy them! Polacks, yids, communists, destroy them all without mercy!

in memoriam

This picture was taken on 5 July 1913. It shows a newlywed Jewish couple, residents of Uman. The man kept books. The woman played a piano. Their daughters were born in 1923 and 1925. The man succumbed to a cardiac arrest in 1938. The woman carried on.

Uman was occupied by the Wehrmacht on 1 August 1941. On Wednesday, 15 August 1945, Oberlieutnant Erwin Bingel recounted the events of 16 September 1941. He was under orders to set up guards on all railways in the area, and around the Uman airport, which contained the town’s Jews, herded on horseback by an armed Ukrainian militia, for a census roll call posted throughout the region. The shooters of Einsatzgruppe C, led by Otto Rasch, holder of two university doctorates in political economy and philosophy, ordered each successive row of Untermenschen to move forward to a row of tables where they had to undress completely and hand over everything they wore and carried. They were made to stand in line in front of the ditches. The Einsatzkommandos then marched in behind the line and mowed it down with submachine guns and Parabellum pistols. Thereupon, the Jewish men in each successive row were ordered to step out and take shovels with which to heap chloride of lime upon the bodies convulsing in the ditch. At last they returned to the tables and undressed to embark on the same last walk.

On the following day, Oberfeldwebel Renner and another man under Bingel’s command were taken to the Lvov field hospital with “complete nervous breakdowns”. In his postwar deposition, Bingel estimated that 24,000 Jews were killed in his sight on that day. This woman and her mother numbered among them.

                Two Formal Elegies

                                                   For the Jews in Europe
                               1

Knowing the dead, and how some are disposed:
Subdued under rubble, water, in sand graves.
In clenched cinders not yielding their abused
Bodies and bonds to those whom war’s chance saves
Without the law: we grasp, roughly, the song.
Arrogant acceptance from which song derives
Is bedded with their blood, makes flourish young
Roots in ashes. The wilderness revives,

Deceives with sweetness harshness. Still beneath
Live skin stone breathes, about which fires but play,
Fierce heart that is the iced brain’s to command
To judgment—studied reflex, contained breath—
Their best of worlds since, on the ordained day,
This world went spinning from Jehovah’s hand.

                               2

For all that must be gone through, their long death
Documented and safe, we have enough
Witnesses (our world being witness-proof),
The sea flickers, roars, in its wide hearth.
Here, yearly, the pushing midlanders stand
To warm themselves; men brawny with life,
Women who expect life. They relieve
Their thickening bodies, settle on scraped sand.

Is it good to remind them, on a brief screen,
Of what they have witnessed and not seen?
(Deaths of the city that persistently dies…?)
To put up stones ensures some sacrifice,
Sufficient men confer, carry their weight.
(At whose door does the sacrifice stand or start?)

                               —Geoffrey Hill, 1959