plagiarism or traducement?

Art is long, and Time is fleeting,
And our hearts, though stout and brave,
Still, like muffled drums, are beating
Funeral marches to the grave.

― Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807–1882)
A Psalm of Life (1839), verses 13-16

Full many a gem of purest ray serene,
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear:
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
And waste its sweetness on the desert air.

― Thomas Gray (1716―1771)
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard (1768), verses 53-56

Pour soulever un poids si lourd,
Sisyphe, il faudrait ton courage!
Bien qu’on ait du cœur à l’ouvrage,
L’Art est long et le Temps est court.

Loin des sépultures célèbres,
Vers un cimetière isolé,
Mon cœur, comme un tambour voilé,
Va battant des marches funèbres.

―Maint joyau dort enseveli
Dans les ténèbres et l’oubli,
Bien loin des pioches et des sondes;

Mainte fleur épanche à regret
Son parfum doux comme un secret
Dans les solitudes profondes.

― Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867), Le guignon (1852)

« Le désir d’originalité[Originalité — Désirer être SOI. Désirer d’être neuf. Mais soi et neuf font… Dix.] est le père de tous les emprunts / de toutes les imitations /. Rien de plus original, rien de plus soi que se nourrir des autres ― Mais il les faut digérer. Le lion est fait de mouton assimilé. » (1916. C, VI, 137)
― Paul Valéry, Cahiers II, Poïétique, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade / nrf Gallimard 1974, pp. 1002―1003; reproduit partiellement dans Tel Quel (1941, 1943), Choses tues (1930) II, Œuvres II, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade / nrf Gallimard 1960, p. 478

“One of the surest of tests is the way in which a poet borrows. Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different. The good poet welds his theft into a whole of feeling which is unique, utterly different from that from which it was torn; the bad poet throws it into something which has no cohesion. A good poet will usually borrow from authors remote in time, or alien in language, or diverse in interest. Chapman borrowed from Seneca; Shakespeare and Webster from Montaigne.”
— T.S. Eliot, “Philip Massinger”, in The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism, Methuen & Co. Ltd, p. 125

Contributed to a discussion precipitated by Алексей Цветков ([info]aptsvet)

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